Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FESS)
A flexible fiberoptic endoscope is inserted into the pharyngeal area through the nostrils. Speech therapists can the evaluate the laryngeal & pharyngeal structures before and after swallow.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
A Non-invasive brain stimulation technique. It can be used to examine neurological integrity or modulate brain activities.
Functional near infra-red spectroscopy (FNIRS)
Using near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor haemodynamic changes of the brain cortex during different physiological activities.
Surface Electromyography (sEMG)
It measures the tension of the swallowing muscles. A set of electrodes are placed on to the neck to measure the tension of the swallowing muscles at rest and during swallowing. It also provides visual stimulus to help clients evaluate their own swallowing muscle activities.